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Select the choices that describe giant planets (also referred to as gas giants).

- Smaller than giant planets A substantially higher fraction of light elements is found in gas giants than in terrestrial planets. Assuming the planets formed near their current positions, one explanation is that ?. Select all the choices that correctly describe Venus's atmosphere. - It is mostly carbon dioxide (CO2). - It reflects most. JOVIAN PLANETS (GAS GIANTS) Unlike the terrestrial planets, Jovian planets consist mostly (although probably not entirely) of gas rather than rock. They also tend to be extremely large; in the solar system, the lightest gas giant is 14 times the mass of the heaviest terrestrial planet, Earth

To qualify as a gas giant planet it must be of a larger size and made up of mostly gases, such as helium and hydrogen, and have a small rocky core. In our solar system, our four gas giants are also called Jovian planets, named after Jupiter as they live in the outer orbits of the solar system Gas giants have been found around more than a thousand stars by the Kepler mission. These large exoplanets are often referred to by such names as Hot Jupiters, SuperJupiters, and Giant Neptunes. Gas Giant Sizes & Orbits The relative orbit distances of the Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune The gas giants of our solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These four large planets, also called jovian planets after Jupiter, reside in the outer part of the solar system past the..

The small planets have diameters less than 13000 km. giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The giant planets have diameters greater than 48000 km. The giant planets are sometimes also referred to as gas giants. by position relative to the Sun: inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus. Officially designated as gas (and/or ice) giants, these worlds also go by the name of Jovian planets. Used interchangeably with terms like gas giant and giant planet, the name describes.

With this goal in mind, watch this animation of the planets in the Solar System and select all of the following choices that describe the patterns that you've observed. As you do so, think about the implications of how the Solar System may have formed. Choose one or more: A. Planets orbit the Sun in random directions. B The ice giants' rocky, icy cores are also proportionally larger than the amount of gas they contain, unlike the gas giants. This is why Uranus and Neptune are called ice giants Planets in the Solar System can be placed under two categories: terrestrial planets and jovian planets. Terrestrial planets are small planets made of rock, while jovian planets, also referred to as the 'gas giants', are made up of gaseous substances, mostly hydrogen. Read on to learn about the different characteristics of jovian planets.. Dirty snowballs can amass into giant planetary cores. These colder regions also allow gas molecules to slow down enough to be drawn onto a planet. This is how Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the gas giants of our solar system, are thought to have formed. Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have formed first and quickly within the first 10. The outer planets of the Solar System - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune - are gas giants, a designation which applies to planets that are primary composed of hydrogen and helium

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Gas giants are sometimes known as failed stars because they contain the same basic elements as a star. Jupiter and Saturn are the gas giants of the Solar System.The term gas giant was originally synonymous with giant planet, but in the 1990s it became known that Uranus and Neptune are really a distinct class of giant. In our solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gas giants, also known as Jovian planets. It's unclear what the dividing line is between a rocky planet and a terrestrial planet; some. Jovian Planets: Gas Giants. The gas giants, popularly referred to as Jovian planets, are planets which are not composed of any solid matter. Technically, the planets which have 10 times the mass of the Earth are classified as Jovian planets. In our solar system, planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune fall in this category Pluto, discovered in 1930, was identified as the ninth planet. But Pluto is much smaller than Mercury and is even smaller than some of the planetary moons. It is unlike the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars), or the gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn), or the ice giants (Uranus, Neptune) Take a tour of the outer planets of our solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Find out what makes each of these gas giants unique and learn about Pluto, a dwarf planet

It is also known as the red planet due to the rust of iron-rich materials that form the planet's surface. Mars is smaller than Earth and Venus, at only 10% of Earth's mass The current composition of giant planet atmospheres provides information on how such planets formed, and on the origin of the solid building blocks that contributed to their formation. Noble gas abundances and their isotope ratios are among the most valuable pieces of evidence for tracing the origin of the materials from which the giant planets formed. In this review we first outline the. Introduction. The planetary system we call home is located in an outer spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy. Our solar system consists of our star, the Sun, and everything bound to it by gravity — the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, dwarf planets such as Pluto, dozens of moons and millions of asteroids, comets and meteoroids

Also, the distance within which something can be reached or perceived. Saturn: The sixth planet out from the sun in our solar system. One of the two gas giants, this planet takes 10.6 hours to rotate (completing a day) and 29.5 Earth years to complete one orbit of the sun. It has at least 82 moons Gas Giant resource pack. Gas Giants are exceptionally large planets composed almost entirely of gas and liquid as opposed to the hard-surfaced terrestrial planets. They are recognizable by their distinctive banded pattern of horizontal stripes and often colourful cloud tops. This is the result of complex weather patterns often due to different. Jovian planets are also called Gas Giants because of the fact that they do not have solid grounds but are mainly composed of a dense layer of gases. However, Neptune and Uranus are giants but not gas giants as they are made up of ice. The reason why Jovian planets are called giants is because they are much heavier having more than 10 earth masses

2. To show the birth of a star as a hot gas cloud, wrap the outside of a globe in cotton and place it over the first bulb of the string of lights. 3. For a newborn star, have an orange light inside a 3-inch globe. 4. For a steady star, have a yellow light inside a 2-inch globe. 5. For a red giant, have a red light inside a 5-inch globe. 6 These planets are much larger than the inner planets and are made primarily of gases and liquids, so they are also called gas giants. This image shows the four outer planets and the Sun, with sizes to scale. From left to right, the outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune The terrestrial planets are nearly isolated worlds, with only Earth (1 moon) and Mars (2 moons) orbited by any moons at all. In contrast, many moons and rings orbit each of the jovian planets. All four jovian planets have rings, although only Saturn's rings are easily visible from Earth

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that are not massive enough to sustain nuclear fusion of ordinary hydrogen (1 H) into helium in their cores, unlike main sequence stars. They have a mass between the most massive gas giant planets and the least massive stars, approximately 13 to 80 times that of Jupiter (M J). However, they are able to fuse deuterium (2 H), and the most massive (> 65 M J. The Ice Giants may be our closest and best representatives of a whole class of astrophysical objects, as Neptune-sized worlds have emerged as the dominant category in our expanding census of exoplanets (Fulton and Petigura, 2018), intermediate between the smaller terrestrial worlds and the larger hydrogen-rich gas giants (Section 3.3).Our own Ice Giants offer an opportunity to explore physical. Giant Online kaufen & täglich von neuen Angeboten profitieren! Wähle bei fahrrad.de neben Giant aus über 40.000 Artikeln und 500 Top Bike Marken

This planetary migration is the best explanation for these newly discovered hot Jupiters-- massive gas giants orbiting extremely close to their stars. Planetary migration is caused by gravitational interactions between the gas in the solar nebula and the young planets, and also by gravitational interactions between the planets and the. Solar System Explorer Answer Key Vocabulary: astronomical unit, dwarf planet, eccentricity, ellipse, gas giant, Kepler's laws, orbit, orbital radius, period, planet, solar system, terrestrial planet Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) [Note: The purpose of these questions is to activate prior knowledge and get students thinking The planet Jupiter is the first of the gas giant planets. Made mostly of gas, they include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Jupiter is first among the planets in terms of size and mass. Its diameter is 11 times bigger than Earth, and its mass is 2.5 times greater than all the other planets combined Unfortunately, the other answers in this feed fall short of an accurate description. There's just so many incorrect answers I had to point this out. As gas and dust circulates in the accretion disk (after stellar ignition), the heavier elements co.. The planets in order from the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and finally the dwarf planet Pluto.. Most people have at least heard about our solar system and the planets in it. Our solar system is usually gone over in elementary school, so you might just need a refresher course about the planets in order in our solar system

The eight planets in our solar system are, in order from the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.The first four, known as the inner planets, are terrestrial bodies. This means they are rock and metal based planets. When the universe was young, these would have been the only planetary bodies that would have been able to withstand the heat of the young star Our solar system is filled with a wide assortment of celestial bodies - the Sun itself, our eight planets, dwarf planets, and asteroids - and on Earth, life itself! The inner solar system is occasionally visited by comets that loop in from the outer reaches of the solar system on highly elliptical orbits.In the outer reaches of the solar system, we find the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud Jupiter and Saturn are often referred to as gas giant planets, but the bulk of their interiors are not in the gaseous phase, owing to high pressures and temperatures (Fig. 1) The four planets furthest from the Sun are known as the Outer Planets, or the Gas Giants. These planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Separating the Inner Planets from the Outer Planets is the Asteroid Belt, a region of thousands of asteroids in orbit of the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. Although no planet is the same as each other. Also commonly referred to as failed stars, brown dwarfs are sub-stellar objects that fill the gap between the most massive gas planets, and the least massive true stars. Typically, brown dwarf stars fall into the mass range of 13 to 80 Jupiter-masses, with sub-brown dwarf stars falling below this range, and the least massive red dwarf.

2. To show the birth of a star as a hot gas cloud, wrap the outside of a globe in cotton and place it over the first bulb of the string of lights. 3. For a newborn star, have an orange light inside a 3-inch globe. 4. For a steady star, have a yellow light inside a 2-inch globe. 5. For a red giant, have a red light inside a 5-inch globe. 6 The red giant branch is populated with some of the originally more massive stars. Some of the first red giant stars that formed have already become white dwarfs. After 10 billion years (10 10 years), The OBAFG stars are all missing from the Main Sequence, the red giant branch is very well populated, and there are also many white dwarfs. Only K. In addition, ice and gas are also far less dense than the rock and metal that make up the inner planets. The density of materials results in a wide size gap, with the less dense outer planets being much larger. The average diameter of the outer planets is 91,041.5 km, vs 9,132.75 km for the inner planets--the inner planets are almost exactly 10.

Star life cycles. 1. Main Section Base your answer on the diagram below, which shows an inferred sequence in which our solar system formed from a giant interstellar cloud of gas and debris. Stage A shows the collapse of the gas cloud, stage B shows its flattening, and stage C shows the sequence that led to the formation of planets Life Cycles of Stars A star's life cycle is determined by its mass. The larger its mass, the shorter its life cycle. A star's mass is determined by the amount of matter that is available in its nebula, the giant cloud of gas and dust from which it was born.Over time, the hydrogen gas in the nebula is pulled together by gravity and it begins to spin. As the gas spins faster, it heats up and. It is known that small planets (of roughly Earth-like mass or somewhat larger) are more common than giant planets. It also appears that there are more planets in large orbits than in small orbits. Based on this, it is estimated that perhaps 20% of Sun-like stars have at least one giant planet, whereas at least 40% may have planets of lower mass

The Interstellar Medium (ISM) When you observe the night sky, you see the stars as pinpoints of light against a black background. You have also probably been told that outer space is a vacuum—that is, that, other than stars and planets, it is very empty. It is true that space is so empty that it is a more perfect vacuum than we can. WDM is common in astrophysical objects, such as interiors of Jovian planets (also referred to as gas giants, e.g., Jupiter or Saturn), ice giants (e.g., Neptune), brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, low-mass stars, or crusts of old stars, all of which are predominantly composed of light elements such as hydrogen, helium and carbon [Reference Lebedev 3.

SCI 101 Chapter 13 Learnsmart Flashcards Quizle

The four outer planets, the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as ice giants However, Deienno et al. (2017) also found that wide resonant chains beginning with the gas giants and first ice giant in a 2:1, 3:2 chain are highly stable, and typically do not decompose into an orbital instability. Therefore, it is important to point out that tighter ice giant resonances (e.g. 4:3 or 5:4) are a possible pre-condition of the 2.

Comparison of Terrestrial Planets and Gas Giants

  1. ant gas component of Jupiter and Saturn can then be accreted directly from the gas disk by this core
  2. osity classifications of III and II (bright giant and giant) are referred to as blue giant stars. The term applies to a variety of stars in different phases of development. They are evolved stars that have moved from the main sequence but have little else in common
  3. Pluto's Unusual Orbit. It takes 248 Earth years for Pluto to complete one orbit around the Sun. Its orbital path doesn't lie in the same plane as the eight planets, but is inclined at an angle of 17°. Its orbit is also more oval-shaped, or elliptical, than those of the planets. That means that sometimes Pluto is a lot nearer to the Sun than at.
  4. Second, a gas giant must form exterior to the terrestrial zone early enough to block the pebble flux and starve the inner embryos. Of course, these conditions are linked because giant planet cores are also migrating embryos, and cores that end up at ∼5 AU may plausibly originate across the entire disk [Bitsch et al., 2015b; Raymond et al., 2016]
  5. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, called the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the.

Gas Giant Facts for Kids - The Outer Planet

Gas Giant Facts (The Outer Planets

dwarf planet, body, other than a natural satellite (moon), that orbits the Sun and that is, for practical purposes, smaller than the planet Mercury yet large enough for its own gravity to have rounded its shape substantially. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted this category of solar system bodies in August 2006, designating Pluto, the even more-remote object Eris, and the. Thousands, all cool class M giants, are known. On the HR diagram, such advanced giants are at the cool end of the giant branch, the Miras occupying the coolest and brightest portion. In astronomical jargon, such stars are called asymptotic giant branch stars (or AGB stars) because of the appearance of their distribution on the HR diagram Since then, this line has been used to detect extended atmospheres in six other planets (five gas giants and one sub-Neptune, with masses ranging from 0.044M J to 1.116M J) using both space- and ground-based facilities (Allart et al. 2018; Mansfield et al. 2018; Nortmann et al. 2018; Salz et al. 2018; Alonso-Floriano et al. 2019; Ninan et al. The mission will also investigate larger terrestrial planets that have 2 to 10 Earth masses, or 1.3 to 2.2 times its radius/diameter. However, larger planets will be excluded because they may have sufficient gravity to attract a massive hydrogen-helium atmosphere like the gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)

Gas Giants: Facts About the Outer Planets Spac

Evolution of Stars. The interior of a typical main sequence star is illustrated by the internal conditions of the Sun, with the highest density, pressure, energy generation rate, and temperature occurring at the very center. The temperature dependency of the proton‐proton cycle means that energy is produced over a fairly large volume in the. The outer solar system is not just composed of the four giant planets: those planets have a retinue of 170 known moons (and doubtless many more yet to be discovered), which are a collection of worlds as diverse as anywhere else in the domain of the Sun: there are sulfur-spewing volcanoes, subterranean oceans of salty water, geysers, lakes and. We have also seen stars that are just one tenth the size of our sun. Suns with friends. Our Sun is a little unusual because it doesn't have any friends. It's just one Sun surrounded by planets, asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets. But solar systems can have more than one sun. In fact, that's often the case..

Solar System Facts - The Nine Planet

  1. At first these planets were just cores of ice and rock, perhaps ten times the mass of Earth, but Jupiter and Saturn quickly grew into gas giants. But there were likely more than just four cores
  2. Filling the size gap between the smaller terrestrial planets of the inner solar system and the gas giants, are the very distant ice giant planets. Neptune and Uranus are very different from either the terrestrial planets or the gas giants, and represent a class of planets that, to date, is largely unexplored
  3. This is a gas giant — nothing more than a giant ball of hydrogen, helium, and other gases with little solid surface, with an average temperature of -148 °C. Saturn Life-supporting planets usually posses a heavy-metal core surrounded by a rocky mantle
  4. The main-sequence lifetimes of stars of different masses are listed in Table 22.1. This table shows that the most massive stars spend only a few million years on the main sequence. A star of 1 solar mass remains there for roughly 10 billion years, while a star of about 0.4 solar mass has a main-sequence lifetime of some 200 billion years, which.
  5. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the largest having an equatorial radius 3,958.8 miles. The planet is also the only terrestrial planet known to have a hydrosphere. Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun with its distance from the Sun of 92,955,902 miles making up 1 AU (astronomical unit)

What are the Jovian Planets? - Universe Toda

The outer planets are also known as giant planets , since their size is much larger than that of the inner planets. Most planets discovered outside our system have a composition similar to that of the outer planets. The magnetic fields of the outer planets are very high. They are also known as Jovian planets , a name that comes from Jupiter The sun is made up of 74% hydrogen and 24% helium. It is also the center of the universe and the planets orbit around it. Those planets include terrestrial planets and gaseous planets Gases escaped from them during the planets' formation. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the four inner planets. They are also called terrestrial planets because they have solid and rocky surfaces similar to earth. The inner planets are much smaller than the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) B) It has been modified to allow for the formation of gas giants within the frost line. C) It has been modified to allow for planets to migrate inwards or outwards due to gravitational interactions. D) Its status is unclear and awaits further observations that will determine whether hot Jupiters are dense Earth like planets or gas giants Saturn is well known for being a gas giant, and for its impressive ring system. But it would it surprise you to know that this planet also has the second-most moons in the solar system, second.

Chapter 3 Test Flashcards Quizle

B) They differ due to giant impacts at the late stages of planet formation. C) Accretion took longer further from the Sun, so the more distant planets formed their cores later and captured less gas from the solar nebula than the closer jovian planets. D) The solar heating is less for the more distant planets than the closer planets Terrestrial planets have a solid surface with an atmosphere, according to New Jersey University's Department of Astronomy. The terrestrial planets include Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Although the four terrestrial planets have a solid surface, the individual planets have variant characteristics. Earth is the only planet with water on its.

Why do astronomers call Uranus and Neptune ice giants

It also has lots of Red Giants, but that is another story. If we look at the stars in our neighborhood (figure 5), we see far more low-mass stars. So most stars in the galaxy today are low-mass stars, for two reasons: 1) more low-mass than high-mass stars are born in each cloud, and 2) low-mass stars live much much longer than high-mass stars The gas giants may have formed somewhat close to the infant Sun, but they eventually migrated out to their present positions. The outer solar system is more hospitable to the hydrogen, helium, and other gases that make up the bulk of those gas giant planets

Video: Characteristics of Jovian Planets - Universavv

How do planets form? - Exoplanet Exploration: Planets

  1. osity. e) They have the same lu
  2. The triple alpha process for post-main sequence stars. Two helium nuclei (alpha-particles) fuse to form a beryllium-8 nucleus. This is unstable and normally decays back into two H-4e nuclei within a fraction of a second but given the high number of He-4 nuclei in the core will sometimes collide with one before it has had a chance to decay
  3. Earth is also considered to be more of an approximation of a closed system because some matter does enter from space. There are three types of systems in thermodynamics. The first type is an open system, such as the human circulatory system, in which heat and matter are exchanged with the surrounding area
  4. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are known as the Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets, because they are all gigantic compared with Earth, and they have a gaseous nature like Jupiter's. The Jovian planets are also referred to as the gas giants, although some or all of them might have small solid cores. The following diagram shows the approximate.

What are Gas Giants? - Universe Toda

The 7th planet from the solar system Uranus is also the first of the ice giant planets. Uranus is the 4th most massive planet in the solar system and has the coldest atmospheric temperature at −224 °C. Uranus' atmosphere is composed mostly of hydrogen and helium but has large quantities of water, ammonia, and methane ice The distance of each planet from the sun is a determinant of its basic composition. Mars and the planets inside its orbit are known as terrestrial planets because they are composed mostly of rock. The ones outside its orbits are known as gas giants or, in the case of the two outermost planets, ice giants How would scientists describe the properties of the stars compared to the Sun? What is the name of the gas/dust clouds that form stars? answer choices answer choices . galaxies. the sun. constellations. Tags: Question 33 . SURVEY . 900 seconds . Q. The North Star is also known as.... answer choices . The sun. Orions belt Time of chaos. The Solar System was a really messy place at this time, with gas and dust and debris floating around. But planet formation appears to have happened relatively rapidly

Gas giant - Wikipedi

  1. Planet Facts. Our solar system has eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. With the exception of Uranus and Neptune, each of these planets can be seen unaided. All eight planets can be see through the use of an inexpensive amateur telescope or binoculars
  2. These three pillars are informally referred to as people, planet and profits. Key Takeaways Corporate sustainability is a growing concern among investors who seek not only economic profit but also.
  3. The two largest planets Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants being composed mainly of Hydrogen and Helium, the two outermost planets Uranus and Neptune are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium called Volatiles. The solar system also contains smaller objects

Terrestrial Planets: Definition & Facts About the Inner

Sometimes, the last two planets Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giants. Anyhow, the former ninth planet, Pluto is no longer considered a planet. It is a dwarf planet. (Why is Pluto not a Planet Anymore) Difference Between Inner and Outer Planets Synonyms. Inner Planets: Inner Planets are also known as Terrestrial planets, Earth-like. In addition to justifying the results of previous studies of giant planet formation that did not explicitly consider spin, we also calculated how the rotation periods of gas giants evolve during post-runaway accretion. We found that planets rotate slower than breakup, with a maximal rotation period given by P max /P break ∼ (t KH /P break) 1. The fact that our Sun and the stars all have similar compositions and are made up of mostly hydrogen and helium was first shown in a brilliant thesis in 1925 by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, the first woman to get a PhD in astronomy in the United States (Figure 15.3).However, the idea that the simplest light gases—hydrogen and helium—were the most abundant elements in stars was so unexpected. 5.E compare terrestrial planets to gas-giant planets in the solar system, including structure, composition, size, density, orbit, surface features, tectonic activity, temperature, and suitability for life Earth Science Literacy Principles 2.2 Our Solar System formed from a vast cloud of gas and dust 4.6 billion years ago

Key Difference: Nebula is a cloud in deep space consisting of gas or dirt/dust (e.g. cloud formed after a star explodes).Supernova is the last stage of the life of a star and is a very huge explosion from a dead star. Nebula and Supernova are the two concepts that are related with stars, and they are interrelated with each other Jul 17, 2021 - Jupiter with Moons And Their Shadows Photographic Print. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed [source: Umemoto, K, et al (2006) Dissociation of MgSiO3 in the Cores of Gas Giants and Terrestrial Exoplanets. Science 311:983-986]. Core Accretion is the Standard Theory of Planet Formation, But it Doesn't Explain the Formation of Giant Gas Planets The nebular theory is an explanation for the formation of solar systems. The word nebula is Latin for cloud, and according to the explanation, stars are born from clouds of interstellar gas and dust. The transition from an undifferentiated cloud to a star system complete with planets and moons takes about 100 million years The model, which is sometimes referred to as reconfiguration of giant planet orbits (Nice model, Morbidelli, Levison, Tsiganis, & Gomes, 2005; Tsiganis, Gomes, Morbidelli, & Levison, 2005) suggested an existence of the primordial disk of several tens of Earth masses made of comet-like objects residing just outside the initial orbits of. The terrestrial (or Earth-like) planets are small, rocky, dense, and closer to the sun than are the gas giants. The gas giant (or Jupiter-like) planets are large, but they are still much smaller than the sun. They are made mostly of gas and have no visible solid surface. They are less dense than the Earth-like planets